Biomass Utilization In Energy Production
The shift towards renewable energy forms is an inevitable part of strategies trying to mitigate the challenges coming from climate change. Different kinds of biomass have been important energy resources of mankind for thousands of years (Hadiyanto 2012). Recent scientific and technological innovations made possible the exploitation of these traditional resources in a more effective way. Judgements of this traditional energy resource are rather controversial nowadays. On the one hand studies all over the world state, that biomass should be used to a greater extent in the supply side of energy market. For example effective pellet stoves can give us an economic and comfortable solution of heating in private dwellings and in public buildings as well. (Ingerson 2009) Biodiesel and bio-ethanol are expected as possible descendants of fossil fuels. (Coyle 2007) Nevertheless the issue is far broader than the realm of useful arts. Accordingly it is very important to evoke discourses not only on economic questions, but on natural and social issues as well. (Scheer 2007)
On the other hand there are many opponent judgements concerning this issue. Firstly some authors think that growing demands on biomass based energy resources endanger equilibrium of natural ecosystems mainly in sensitive areas (e.g. tropical rainforests). (Leemans et al. 1996) Secondly a threat is predicted that energy demands on the rise are going to increase food prices worldwide and in poorer countries it causes famine. (Schade &Pimentel 2009) Finally there are some sceptic opinions among professionals that these bio-fuels can never be produced economically without state subsidies (low net-energy gain). (Hall 1997; Hill et al. 2006)
These issues are far too important to deny them. Proposals to answer these crucial questions are born at global, national, regional and local level. Globally the United Nation’s FAO has coordinated many programmes concerning bioenergy (e.g. Bioenergy and Food Security Criteria and Indicators (BEFSCI) Project or the FAO Support Package for Decision-Making for Sustainable Bioenergy: Making Bioenergy Work for Climate, Energy and Food Security).1 The FAO is the institution that has the ability to co-ordinate sustainable energetically utilized biomass projects worldwide. (Hoogwijk et al. 2005; Scheer 2007)
The future of biomass energy in the global energy system depends on on many major factors, among others on the attitude of society to the biomass energy and the renewable energy resources (Christopher et al.2007).
We think that one of the most important factors is the local community as inhabitants can benefit the advantages of biomass energy but locals suffer its backwards. That means the increasing importance of the society which gave to us the idea to study this topic
THE STUDIED AREA AND AIMS
Heves County is located on the northern part of Hungary with very good connection to the largest cities of the country. It is a rural area with small villages where the energy production could be served by renewable sources.
The aims of this analysis are on the one hand to predict the potential renewable energy of Heves County and on the other hand to research the social background of the utilisation of renewable energy sources (RES)