Based on the results of descriptive statistics, most agricultural personnel had university education and were with 11-15 years tenure in the organization. Zero- order Pearson correlation analysis used to analyze the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation (EO), entrepreneurial management (EM), entrepreneurial self efficacy (ESE), and job performance (JP) among agricultural personnel. Based on the results of table 1, JP was significantly related to EO, EM and ESE (at P<0.01). Results of correlation analysis also revealed that ESE was positively related to EO and EM among agricultural personnel.
Note: Internal reliabilities are in parenthesis, ** p < 0.01.
As table 1 illustrates, agricultural personnel’ perceptions about entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of their organization was above average (mean= 3.28), implying that personnel perceived level of their organizational EO as moderate. Agricultural personnel had fair agreement with level of their organizational EM (Mean= 2.24), suggesting that personnel felt somewhat good about EM. Agricultural personnel identified their level of ESE as “moderate” (Mean = 3.40), reflecting that personnel agreed that they have required entrepreneurial skills, as well as positive appraisal of their work environment. The degree of agreement on job performance was “somewhat agree” (Mean= 3.15), i.e., agricultural personnel somewhat agreed that individual job performance was good. The Cronbach alpha values of research variables were in the range of 0.71-0.89, indicating good reliability (Nunnally, 1978). To validate the developed constructs of conceptual framework, the research framework was estimated with the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in which all measurement items were loaded on their expected constructs, and the constructs were correlated in the analysis (Gerbing and Anderson, 1988). In the testing model for confirmatory factor analysis, all factor loadings were significant (p < 0.001). Therefore, substantial and significant factor loadings provide evidence of convergent validity (Steenkamp & Trijp, 1991), with the threshold value of >0.3. Table 2 displays the fit statistics for the measurement model. Based on the results of table 2, the hypothesized measurement model fit the data quite well when evaluated in terms of the recommended cut-offs. The hypothesized measurement model fit the data better than a single factor model, both in terms of the fit statistics and when directly contrasted with a change in Chi-square test and AIC. Overall, the results of table 2, suggest that the proposed factor structure presents a statistically adequate and sufficient fit to the data, for assessing entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and entrepreneurial management (EM) antecedents with entrepreneurial self efficacy (ESE) and job performance (JP) among agricultural personnel and indicating the absence of severe common method variance.
Note: N= 80. %2: Chi-square statistic; ns: non-significant; Hyp: Hypothesized.
** P < 0.001.
Lastly, the study applied a structural equation model to verify the relationships of EO and EM antecedents with ESE (as mediation factor) and JP among agricultural personnel. Structural equation model combines aspects of multiple regression and factor analysis to estimate a series of interrelated relationships among variables simultaneously (Hair et al., 2006). The hypothesized model of this study had excellent fit to the data. This model revealed an excellent fit to the data: y2 (18, N= 80) = 14.59, p = 0.824; RMSEA= 0.000 (90% CI: 0.000-0.040); GFI = 0.986; CFI = 1.000; RMR= 0.038 and AIC = 49.58. Examining the findings for direct and indirect relationships (see Table 3) the model postulated that the effects of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and entrepreneurial management (EM) antecedents on job performance (JP) were fully mediated by entrepreneurial self efficacy (ESE) among agricultural personnel. The standardized direct effect of EO and EM antecedents on agricultural personnel ESE was
0.25 (p < 0.01) and 0.17 (p < 0.01), respectively. Furthermore, agricultural personnel ESE had a direct effect on their job performance (JP) (0.87, p < 0.01). In sum, the standardized total effect of EO and EM antecedents on job performance (JP) was 0.26 (95% percentile confidence interval: 0.08-0.41, p < 0.01) and 0.19 (95% percentile confidence interval: 0.03-0.32, p < 0.01), respectively. The proportion of variance in agricultural personnel entrepreneurial self efficacy (ESE), and their job performance (JP), explained by the collective set of predictors was 19 and 85%, respectively.
Note: The upper and lower bounds of the 95% confidence interval (shown in parentheses) were based on the findings from a bootstrapping analysis using the percentile method. * P < 0.05.