Suicide attack is the most virulent and horrifying form of terrorism in the world today. The mere rumor of an impending suicide attack can throw thousands of people into panic. Although suicide attacks account for a minority of terrorist acts, they are responsible for a majority of terrorism-related casualties, and the rate of attacks is rising rapidly across the globe. During 2000-2004, there were 472 suicide attacks in 22 countries, killing more than 7,000 and wounding tens thousands people. Most have been carried out by Islamist groups claiming religious motivation, also known as jihadis (Hoffman, 2005). Suicide terrorism is a form of extremely committed or extremely deranged armed violence carried out in asymmetric fashion by someone who is intent on taking their own life or duped into thinking they want to take their own life in order to take the life of another or others (Gambetta, 2005).
Suicide attacks are simple and low-cost operations that require no escape routes or rescue operations. In suicide attacks, there is no risk of losing information about the terrorist organization because the deaths of terrorists/attackers are certain (Sprinzak, 2000).
Most suicide attacks are executed by activating explosives, which are carried on the terrorist’s body in the form of a portable explosive device, or are planted in a vehicle driven by the terrorist (Ganor, 2000). Thus, the suicide bomber essentially becomes a human bomb, and selects the time, place, and circumstances for activating the explosive device in an attempt to cause maximum damage to the target (Schweitzer, 2001). For terrorist organizations, human bomb attacks are one of the surest ways of hitting a target. The human bomb is a simple and low-cost operation, and the main objective is to guarantee that the enemy will be disturbed with an explosive belt or bag, the bomber has control over the target, location, and timing (Nasra, 2001).
Suicide attack is an ancient practice with a modern history. However, suicide bombing has its origin and continuance in the social environment of various regions of the world. It has its origins in the complex milieu of religious, social systems, oppression, war, political systems, globe and local political systems, economics and psychological and social dysfunction. It is truly a messy problem with no single solution (Hutchinson, 2007). Experts of law enforcing agencies claim that contemporary suicide attacks began in April 1983 when Hezbollah attacked western targets in Lebanon. A suicide bomber in a pickup truck loaded with explosives rammed into the U.S. Embassy in Beirut killing sixty-three people, including 17 Americans. In October of the same year a suicide bomber detonated a truck full of explosives at the U.S. Marine Corps barracks located at Beirut International Airport killing 220 U.S. Marines and 21 other U.S. service members. On the same day, a separate blast on the French compound in Beirut killed 58 French service members. These attacks resulted in the withdrawal of Western forces from Lebanon. Hezbollah then started using suicide attacks against the Israeli Defense Force in Lebanon and against South Lebanese Army posts (Schweitzer, 2000). 20 people were slaughtered and 82 wounded due to a suicide bombing at the annual Shia Muslims congregation at the shrine of Bari Imam in Islamabad in 27 May 2005. Interior minister of Pakistan Aftab Ahmad Sherpao suffered minor injuries, 28 were killed, and 35 were injured (ten critically) in that act of terrorism after the minister finished speaking on April 28, 2007. In November, same year, a suicide bomber rammed his motorcycle into a PAF bus near Sargodha, killing seven officers of the Pakistan Air Force and 28 people suffered injuries. In Wah, twin suicide bombings killed 63 people and injured 81 people targeting Pakistan’s main munitions factory, the Pakistan Ordnance Factories August 2008. In September, same year, Marriott Hotel was attacked by a massive suicide car bomb, killing over 60 and injuring 250. In May 2009 Suicide bombers detonated a vehicle loaded with 100 kilograms of explosives near offices of the capital city police officer (CCPO) and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in Lahore killing at least 27 people and wounding 326, in addition to destroying a two-story building of the Rescue 15 police service. In July 2010, At least 42 people were killed and more than 180 others were wounded after two suicide bombers attacked a Sufi Islamic shrine at the Data Durbar Complex in Lahore. In November 2010, At least 20 people were killed and more than 100 others injured in a suspected suicide truck bomb explosion, which targeted the Criminal Investigation Department building within Pakistan’s major, southern city Karachi. Although they focused their initial attacks against military targets, they quickly changed tactics to targeting civilians (Schweitzer, 2002).
On December 25, same year, a female suicide bomber blew herself amid a crowd at United Nations food center in the Bajaur region in which 46 people were killed and more than 100 were injured. Moreover, the role of women in carrying out suicide attacks has been focused of increasing concern. The use of women in suicide attacks may point to a broadening to include members of society not usually recruited by contemporary terrorist organizations for this type of mission. Although female participation in terrorism is not historically unusual (notably among left-wing groups), participation in suicide attacks is less common. Growing numbers of female suicide attackers may reflect a number of different factors. Many groups that have utilized suicide terrorism have employed female suicide bombers (Horowitz, 2008). Female suicide bombers are relatively new. Their first known attack came in 1985 when a 16-years old girl, name Khyadali Sana, attack to Israeli Defense Force convoy and killed two soldiers at that time she was driving a truck. Since then, women have driven bomb-laden vehicles, carried bomber “bags,” and strapped massive explosives and metal implements on their bodies in Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Chechnya, Israel, and Turkey. Terrorist groups which have publicized the use of females attackers include the Syrian Socialist National Party (SSNP/PPS), the Sri Lanka Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), Chechen rebels, Al Aqsa Martyrs, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and, most recently, Hamas (Zedalis, 2004). With women becoming part of the terrorist process, a new door of gender is open for media coverage and exposure. “It is a woman who blew herself up, and with her exploded all the myths about women’s weakness, submissiveness, and enslavement” (Egril 2001).
There is a high proportion of suicide attacks in Pakistan which cause the disorder in the society. The first suicide attack occurred in the country’s capital Islamabad in 1995 when the bomber collided with his explosives-laden truck into the embassy of Egypt which killed 14 people. The bomber was Egyptian. After 9/11 it has become very common worldwide and getting political niche in the discourse of our life. Suicide bombing has become very burning and crucial issue in Pakistan especially after the participation of Pakistan in War on Terror. There is “179” total suicide attacks occurred in Pakistan since 2001 to 2010 in which “3380” people were expired and “7771” people injured. This thing shows that there is a constant threat of suicide attacks in Pakistan and they are increasing day by day (Stack, 2010/)