It seems that the very first reference to achievement motivation goes back to Murray (1938). In Murray’s conceptualization of needs as major elements of personality, he identified two achievement-related needs – need for achievement and need for avoiding failure. He described the need for achievement as the desire to “…accomplish something difficult. To master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas. To do this as rapidly, and as independently as possible. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel in one’s self. To rival and surpass others. To increase selfregard by successful exercise of talent” (Murray, 1938, p. 164). Payday Loans Online
And the need for avoidance as the desire to “… avoid humiliation. To quit embarrassing situations or to avoid conditions which may lead to belittlement: the scorn, derision or indifference of others. To refrain from action because of a fear of failure” (Murray, 1938, p. 192).
Following Murray’s work, McClelland (1951), and McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, (1953) viewed achievement motive as a result of presence or lack of affective reactions associated with achievement-related behavior. Consequently, they claimed the existence of two types of achievement motivation; “hope for success” concerning with positive affect and the achievement of success, and “fear of failure” concerned with negative affect and the avoidance of failure.
Motivation to success is a function of individual’s levels of the motives to achieve success and to avoid failure and success probability. The motive to approach success was defined as a stable disposition to strive for success and achievement and to experience satisfaction of being successful (Atkinson, 1957). The motive to avoid failure was defined as “a disposition to avoid failure, and/or a capacity for experiencing shame and humiliation as a consequence of failure” (Atkinson, 1957, p. 360).
As these three pioneer models of achievement motivation had been proposed, many researchers studied achievement motivation relationships with other variables such as academic and job outcomes (e.g., Bing, 2003; Collins, Hanges, & Locke, 2004; Spence, Pred, & Helmreich, 1989); age (cf. Costa & McCrae, 1988; Roberts, Caspi, & Moffit, 2001; Veroff, Reuman, & Feld, 1984); perceived difficulty of tasks (Capa, Audiffren& Ragot, 2008a,b).
Although achievement motivation may seem to be very similar and related to individual variables such as styles and personality traits, they are separate constructs with their own specific differences (Balkis & Isiker, 2005; Zhang & Sternberg, 1998, 2001). In the same line, some scholars focused on achievement motivation relationship with styles and personality traits (Blosser, 1972; Ismail, 1983)
In the most recent study, Fan & Zhang (2009) used The Thinking Styles Inventory — Revised (TSI-R; Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS; Gjesme & Nygard, 1970; Ye & Hagtvet, 1988) to study the relationships between thinking styles and achievement motivation among Chinese university students. They found a positive correlation between the sub constructs of Type I and III thinking styles and achievement motivation to approach success (MS), and negative correlation with achievement motivation to avoid failure (MF). They also found that Type II thinking styles have a negative correlation with MS, and positive correlation with MF. From among a few studies done recently ,this study specifically investigated the relationship between these two variables among college students in Iranian context.